The legacy of colonialism left many African countries with extractive economic systems that focused on resource extraction for the benefit of colonial powers, leaving little infrastructure or human capital development.

High levels of economic inequality persist in many African countries, with a small elite controlling a significant portion of wealth and resources, leaving the majority of the population in poverty.

Corruption is a pervasive issue in some African countries, diverting public resources away from development projects and into the hands of the corrupt. This undermines poverty reduction efforts.

Ongoing conflicts and political instability in some African nations disrupt economic activities, displace populations, and hinder development efforts.

Inadequate access to quality education limits opportunities for many Africans, preventing them from acquiring the skills needed for higher-paying jobs.

Poor access to healthcare services, especially in rural areas, contributes to high mortality rates and limits economic productivity due to illness and disability.

Agriculture is a primary source of livelihood for many Africans, but challenges like land degradation, lack of access to modern farming techniques, and unpredictable weather patterns hinder agricultural productivity.

Inadequate infrastructure, including roads, electricity, and telecommunications, can hinder economic development and access to markets.

Some African countries struggle with high levels of external debt, which can limit their ability to invest in poverty reduction programs and infrastructure development.

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