Pepper: African cuisine often includes various types of peppers, including black pepper, cayenne pepper, and Scotch bonnet peppers, to add heat and flavor to dishes.

Cumin: Cumin is widely used in North African cuisines, particularly in dishes like couscous, tagines, and harira soup.

Coriander: Both the seeds and fresh cilantro leaves are used in African dishes to impart a citrusy, slightly sweet flavor.

Cardamom: This aromatic spice is found in East African cuisine, particularly in dishes like biryani and pilau rice.

Paprika: Paprika adds color and a mild peppery flavor to many North African dishes, such as Moroccan tagines and Tunisian stews.

Ginger: Fresh and dried ginger are staples in African cooking, used in both sweet and savory dishes, including ginger tea and ginger-spiced stews.

Turmeric: Often used in spice blends like curry powder, turmeric adds vibrant color and earthy flavor to African dishes.

Nutmeg: Nutmeg is used in various African desserts, like pastries and rice puddings, to impart a warm, slightly sweet flavor.

Fenugreek: Commonly used in Ethiopian cuisine, fenugreek seeds are found in spice blends like berbere and mitmita.

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