Ancient Egypt is one of the earliest civilizations in Africa, dating back to around 3100 BCE with the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under King Narmer (Menes).

It was located in the northeastern part of Africa, along the Nile River, which provided fertile land for agriculture and played a crucial role in the civilization's development.

Ancient Egypt is renowned for its system of writing known as hieroglyphics, which included both pictorial and alphabetic characters.

The construction of massive pyramids, such as the Great Pyramid of Giza, is one of the most iconic achievements of ancient Egypt. These structures served as tombs for pharaohs and contained treasures for the afterlife.

Egypt was ruled by a series of pharaohs from various dynasties, with notable rulers like Tutankhamun, Ramses II, and Cleopatra.

The ancient Egyptians practiced a polytheistic religion with a pantheon of gods and goddesses, including Ra, Isis, Osiris, and Anubis.

Egyptian civilization made significant contributions to medicine and surgery. They had knowledge of various medicinal plants and surgical procedures.

Egyptian society was highly stratified, with a clear social hierarchy. Pharaohs and priests held the highest positions, followed by nobles, scribes, artisans, and peasants.

The Nile River facilitated trade within Egypt and with neighboring regions. Egypt was known for exporting goods like grain, papyrus, and precious metals.

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