Numerous hominid fossils, including those of early humans and their ancestors, have been discovered in Africa, particularly in regions like the Great Rift Valley. These fossils provide a record of human evolutionary history.

Some of the oldest known hominid fossils, such as Ardipithecus ramidus and Australopithecus afarensis (including the famous "Lucy" specimen), were found in Ethiopia and date back millions of years.

Genetic studies, including analysis of mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosomes, support the idea that modern humans share a common African ancestry. This genetic diversity is most consistent with an African origin for our species.

The closest living relatives to humans, such as chimpanzees and bonobos, are found in Africa. The evolutionary split between these species and humans likely occurred in Africa.

The first hominin species to leave Africa was Homo erectus. Fossil evidence suggests that this species expanded into Eurasia over a million years ago.

Early evidence of stone tools, which were crucial for our ancestors' survival, has been found in Africa. These tools are associated with Homo habilis and Homo erectus.

Africa's diverse environments and climate fluctuations likely played a significant role in shaping human evolution, leading to adaptations and innovations by early humans.

The expansion of the human brain, a key hallmark of human evolution, is evident in the archaeological record through changes in skull size and structure. These developments are primarily documented in African fossils.

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